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“Universe Type System — Quick-Reference” by W. Dietl, P. Müller, and D. Schregenberger. July 2008. Available from


The Universe type system is a lightweight ownership type system that hierarchically structures the object store. It enforces the owner-as-modifier discipline that allows the modular verification of object-oriented programs. The Universe type system is part of the Java Modeling Language (JML) and supported by several tools.

This document serves as a quick reference for the Universe type system, providing an overview and summarizing the type rules and the usage of the tools.

Keywords: UTS

Download: PDF.

BibTeX entry:

   author = {W. Dietl and P. M{"u}ller and D. Schregenberger},
   title = {{Universe Type System --- Quick-Reference}},
   month = jul,
   note = {Available from

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